Manufacturing Technology of products from PVC
Manufacturing of PVC products is divided on some conditional industrial sectors:
1) Preparation Sector;
2) Welding Sector;
3) Skinning of construction corners sector;
4) Installation of transom-bar and sealing rubber Sector;
5) Installation and accessories adjustment Sector;
6) Ready double-glazed windows Installation Sector;
7) Adjustment of leaves at installation of double-glazed products Sector.
Let's study each sector in more details:
1) Preparation Sector
On this sector following operations are made:
Cutting of a reinforcing profile. The reinforcing profile is cut for blanks according to the order which are marked and established in a special pyramid so that to provide to them an easy approach.
Cutting of PVC blanks is made according to the form of the order taking into account a stock on welding of 5-6 mm (the allowance on welding is the parameter depending on adjustment of the welding machine tool, and can be in limits from 2.5 to 3 mm on the part). Frame and leaf profiles are cut at an angle 45 °.
Transom-bar is cut at an angle 90 ° taking into account a stock on ledges from each part, on 2.5 - 6 mm on the part (depending on adjustment of the milling machine tool).
Milling of all necessary holes in PVC blanks, namely drainage and ventilating holes, holes for installation of the basic lock, holes for a lock on entrance doors. Milling of end faces of transom-bars .
Installation of a reinforcing profile with necessary length into PVC blanks is made according to marks on a profile. Fastening of a reinforcing profile is with the help of self-cutters with boring head 3.9 х 16 (3.9 х 19) mm.
The self-cutters are installed according to the appendix 2 ( it is impossible to diminish the quantity of self-cutters) A purge of blanks of profiles is made with the compressed air.
It is important to specify that quality of let out products is already put on a preparation section.
The profiles used for cutting of blanks, should not have damages (the protective film should not have damages).
Overall dimensions of profile cross-section should correspond to the table of maximum deviations of profiles completely. It is inadmissible to apply in manufacture the products from PVC profiles having deviations in sections.
The entrance quality control of PVC profiles should be organized at each production phase.
2) Welding Sector
Welding of profiles is made by means of special machine tools. In the course of welding it is necessary to maintain necessary conditions of welding strictly: Temperature of a welded knife is 220-250 °С. The knife surface should be absolute pure. It is necessary to wipe a teflon covering of a knife with a pure clap or a paper towel each hour, on "hot", without use of solvents. Fusion time of blanks lasts about 18-40 seconds, and time of welding of blanks is 20-40 seconds. Before installation of blanks on the welding machine tool it is necessary to be convinced of cleanliness of welded surfaces as greasing, the dust, the shaving of PVC or metal sharply worsen quality of welding of a corner. If it is necessary to smooth out welded surfaces by means of the sharp razor. After the termination of welding process it makes visual quality assurance of a welded seam.
The seam necessarily should have white colour (if it is dark or yellow it means that the temperature of heating of a welding knife was very high or in manufacture PVC-profile of inadmissible quality are used). The seam should be uniform.
It is necessary to make the control of conformity of overall dimensions of products according to the order form.
3) Skinning of construction corners sector
Skinning of products corners is made manually or on the special machine tool.
At manual skinning it uses a chisel with a narrow edge and a special shoe knife (the crescent form).
At corners skinning on the equipment it is necessary to pay attention to obverse surfaces of a profile that there was no their damage by mills.
After quality assurance of skinning, products are established on special pyramids for intermediate storage.
4) Installation of transom-bar and sealing rubber Sector
Transom-bar is joined by means of metal system connectors.
There is possibility to use self-cutters (the size 4х25 mm) that weakens connector fastening to transom-bar.
First of all it is necessary to execute an exact marking of installation sites of the transom-bar. It is important to specify that marking is done from one edge of a frame and then it supervises distance on the other hand frames.
An aperture for self-cutter (size 5х7 mm.) is drilled on the special conductor REFERENCE.
The transom-bar with a connector is got into a frame and it is established strictly on a marking.
The connector of the transom-bar is attached to a frame profile by means of 4 self-cutters (size 4 х25mm).
In advance drilled aperture in a frame profile a self-cutter is wrapped (size 5х70 mm.) For raised reliability of a design, can will be applied additional fixture of the connector of the transom-bar by means of a self-cutter (size 5х70 mm).
Further it is possible to pass to installation of sealing rubber:
Consolidation in leafing designs is made by a uniform piece of sealing rubber. Consolidation immersing in a groove should begin in the middle of the top crossbeam of a design. Sealing rubber is manually got in a reception groove so that there was no its stretching. The seal is joined by means of special glue (A,C).
The sealant on leaves is glued on corners in addition. In a window design with the transom-bar in case of a leaf in a frame it is necessary to make in addition sample (it is possible to apply a chisel or the manual milling machine) in an adjunction place of the transom-bar (B).
The sealant is put without ruptures, the whole piece. In case of the deaf glazing the sealant which are supposed to be joined (A) is applied. Then in junctions of the transom-bar with a frame to do sample it is not required. On a joint the sealant sticks together by means of glue.
Here make drilling of holes for pressure alignment. Holes are drilled on the conductor in the top horizontal part of a frame in an end face of the surfacing and a lateral part of frame ledge on the inside.
5) Installation and accessories adjustment sector
On this site make installation of necessary accessories according to the order form. On a leaf angular switches, connectors of locks and average locks which are fixed by means of self-cutters (size 4х25 mm) are established. The basic lock is cut for the necessary size by means of a pneumatic guillotine. Before the chipping a worker should measure precisely the size of a shutter on a leaf and establish this size on a scale ruler. The basic lock is established on a leaf and fixed with the help of self-cutters (size 4х25 mm). All kinds of accessories initially have the special clamps which keep position of accessories in neutral position. It is necessary that during installation all components of accessories were correctly joined among themselves. Clamps break at the first turn of the handle. However before installation it is necessary to check up correctness of an arrangement of parts of accessories.
Scissors on a leaf are cut under a necessary size by a pneumatic guillotine, set on a leaf and fixed with the help of selfcutters (size 4x25 mm). It is important to remember that the Standard size of an average lock steals up in advance depending on leaf height. If the leaf is above 800 mm accessories cutting-in on installation of an additional clamp of a leaf between the top and bottom loop is necessary.
The special rails are applied to correct positioning of a leaf position concerning a frame. Rails are latched in a frame on 2 pieces in each corner and then a leaf is framed. Using of the rails allows estimating roughly proper manufacture of a leaf and a frame.
If a leaf dangles, probably, it is done less necessary size or frame done more necessary size.
On the leaf of turning-folding window, through a template, a lower loop is set on a frame and fastened by long self-cutters (size 4x40 mm.) More long self-cutters are used because they are twisted in only in a plastic. Self-cutters must at least get through two partitions of plastic. Length of self-cutter (size 3.9x 25 mm) in this case is not enough.
The top and bottom loops are established on a frame, they are fixed by self-cutters (size 4 х 25 mm) Now the leaf and a frame are incorporated in a uniform design.
At check the accessories should work without jamming and jerks. It is necessary to check the distance between an obverse surface of a frame and a leaf, it should equal 16 mm or 16.5mm.
It is important to remember that clamped between a leaf and a frame the paper sheet should not be taken out easily.
6) Ready double-glazed windows Installation Sector
Definitive adjustment of leaves is made at the special Stand, REFERENCE.
Stand allows to simulate conditions of real installation of a window in an aperture. At the same stage it is necessary to do the general quality control of products manufacturing.
Linings for double-glazed windows are intended for the following:
- distribute double-glazed window weight, levelling thus loading on a fold, and in addition to exclude the undesirable pressure arising because of temperatures difference, service conditions and so on.
7) Adjustment of leaves at installation of double-glazed products Sector
In a leaf it is established linings for fold alignment in those places where linings under a double-glazed window, on distance of 4-5sm from double-glazed window corners will be established.
The double-glazed window is established in a window leaf on two linings with the thickness 5mm – A and Б. We level position of a double-glazed window in an aperture of a window by means of an assembly shovel and we establish linings B and Г with the thickness of 5mm everyone. Taking out a lining Б, thus all weight of a double-glazed window will pass to a lining A.
At leaf sagging it is necessary: insert an assembly shovel between a fold of a frame and double-glazed window top.
Pressing a double-glazed window it need move frame top upwards and to establish lining Д with a necessary thickness. To check up work of a leaf and if it is necessary to change a thickness of lining Д.
At leaf height more than 1.3m it is necessary to establish additional remote linings Е and Ж. At their installation the thickness of linings steals up such that there was no bend of vertical parts of a leaf.
All linings are fixed by a small amount of silicone hermetic. It is necessary that there was no displacement of linings at installation of glazing beads and transportation. After installation of glazing beads without fail it is necessary to squander a plastic hammer of leaf parts. All operations on adjustment of leaves are made in vertical position at the stand. Linings are established on 40 – 60mm from an internal corner on a fold. If leaf width is more than one meter it is possible to displace linings to 200-250mm from an internal corner on a fold.
Linings for fold alignment are established on installation sites of carrier and remote linings.
The double-glazed window is established on carrier linings A and B with the thickness 5mm. Position of a double-glazed window in a frame aperture is leveled by an assembly shovel.
It selects a necessary thickness remote linings B and Г. At glazing of deaf designs with horizontal transom-bar it is necessary to transfer weight of the top double-glazed window to a building skeleton through linings and the lower double-glazed window. For this purpose from above the bottom double-glazed window it is necessary to put additional linings.
After performance of all operations the ready design is transported to a warehouse.
It is important to remember that if product is manufactured from the colour or laminated plastic - it is obligatory it is packed (cardboard or cellophane).
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